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There is a garden in front of the sitting-room and to one side of the garden a block of rooms for offices, and on the other side a second block of rooms where one could make several rooms, in one of which we created our chapel and in the other, the observatory, such that we could say Mass without leaving the building. But what made it extremely commodious for us is that there was only the width of the road to pass before entering M. We have lived here hitherto without any servants other than his own. Albert de Mandelslo … into the East-Indies, tr.

Tachard, Second Voyage de Siam, , p. This institution had traditionally prepared those missionaries destined for Japan, but Valguarnera realised that ministering to the Japanese in Thailand made more sense than waiting fruitlessly for the closed door policy in Japan to be lifted.

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Marini, S. He led his brothers on to battlefields, for example, where his followers tended the prisoners and the wounded. Thor - Zype. In the fifteen or so documents we have from Valguarnera, including those covering his second visit between and his death on 19 January , he seems particularly proud of a Marian congregation he had established amongst his converts, one dedicated to the Blessed Virgin of the Immaculate Conception.

In Siena, for example, the Immaculate Conception became from the focus of a civic ritual in which the keys of the city were presented to Her protection. See also Marini, Delle Missioni, p. By the time the ten-volume Santuario Mariano was published between , it could describe over 1, Marian sanctuaries throughout Portugal and its colonies.

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Peter on the Island of Goa had no less than five. Yet despite scrupulous research, it has not turned up in the archives. Firstly, the numbers were nothing like the massive number of converts made in the mission field of Ambon, or North Vietnam Tonkin. In the latter, it has been estimated that a total of , souls were brought into the embrace of the Catholic church around this period, excluding those who were baptised on the point of death by their indigenous catechists.

Boxer, Portuguese India in the mid-seventeenth century, In a letter of P. Pedro Martyr to P. Morelli in had seen a letter where the conversion of around five thousand souls a year in the Tonkin mission field was stated, Archivio di Stato di Firenze, F. Marini, Delle Missioni [ed. Polenghi], p.

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Morelli, Lettera , dated London, 2 April This homicide took place in prison, into which the Padre had been thrown. XXVII, p. The missionary work of the European orders based in Siam can be reconstructed from the manuals provided them, outlining a course of suitable instruction as well as lists of objects they needed to take with them on their lengthy journeys.

One such Franciscan report that I have discovered is particularly illustrative. Children were also quick and willing learners, pliant and unfettered by cultural notions of shame so as to agree to involvement in the important public face of See here, Manoel da Ave Maria, O.

Agostinho, ed. Christianity in the East, singing and performing liturgical rites.


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Conversion, however, often referred to by Portuguese padres as o ensino, or teaching, took on three distinct phases: the querigmatic phase, secondly the catechetic phase and thirdly, the didactic phase. The first — the querigmatic phase — was premised upon annunciation. Rather than teaching in the guise of a mestre, the missionary father was encouraged to see himself as an anunciador or Bearer of the Good News. Rather than a perfunctory task, it was important that the bearer of the news proclaimed it with the greatest degree of enthusiasm and enticement possible, modelling himself upon St.

John the Baptist, the model of the querigmatic. This was the most difficult of the three phases. The second or catechetic phase took place until the subject was baptised. Catechism was intended to relate — via a system of questions and answers -- that the love of God is to be imparted on the subject, via charity and forgiveness, a concept very alien to the principal religions of South-East Asia, Buddhism or Islam.

French missionaries of the M. They were to inform as to the sacraments such as Holy Mass.

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The first group was considered considerably easier than the second. IX, , pt. The third phase, that of post-baptismal instruction, concentrated on other sacraments, that of penance, but also complex concepts such as the Eucharist. Novices would inevitably tailor their understanding of these tenets to local circumstances. A poor Moor, in search at the shelter of a cure for serious illness [was received] and there, together with the remedies which they applied to his body, they introduced those things necessary for the welfare of his soul and this having a good effect they instructed him according to his capacity to receive the Sacrament of Baptism.

All this was done in the greatest secrecy. When, having been baptised he expired after a few days, the missionaries were obliged to surrender the body to the Moors for them to bury according to their own rites, convinced as they were that he had died in their false law.


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From which it is clear that amongst similar followers, the fruit which can be gathered is very rare. The guilty here were thrown under the elephants, though others too were implicated, some court officials being also put to death, whilst others were exiled from the kingdom. Antoine Thomas from Namur often confused with Fr. VII India , p.

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Documents historiques, ed. Launay, Paris: , vol. Launay, vol. Hutchinson, Adventurers, Appendix 4. And in return, his obedient children could be rewarded for services they had undertaken for him. In this situation they increase not a little, being like populated villages with their Biblioteca de Ajuda, Lisbon. Andrea da Ponte, operating there until his death. In , as we learn from the Lettera Annua of Macao, it became a Collegium. It is hard to guess at numbers, but was almost certainly closer to the scale of the College of Venice, which housed sixty students, than the scholars for whom space could be found at the College of Coimbra.

There may have been further groups of buildings equipped for practical work. The model tended to be that of the Collegio Romano, which itself borrowed from both medieval Benedictine cloisters and Renaissance civil buildings. These were enclosed but well ventilated. One of the courtyards was to be used by the scholars area scholarum , the other by the students area collegii. Access to the second one was limited solely to the priests.

In the middle of both courts, there was a cistern or well.


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  4. Where space allowed, a more secluded area in a garden was created. Finally, the church, serving as it did both the inhabitants of the colleges priests and Heeck, p. Plan of the Collegio Romano Was the Jesuit college the same as what Coronelli refers to as the Collegio delle Nationi on his map of and which, according to Fr. While the French were quick to secure permissions for B. One of the M. There was, however, no ethnic segregation as was the case with the college in Goa. For a general introduction to the topic, see Francesco C.