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It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first. Drosophila genome database More FlyBase i. Bgee i. FBgn Expressed in 30 organ s , highest expression level in head. ExpressionAtlas i. SMR i. Database of comparative protein structure models More ModBase i. Ensembl GeneTree More GeneTree i.
Conserved Domains Database More CDD i. Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites More InterPro i. Pfam protein domain database More He nevertheless clearly sides with those who reject animal magnetism as an illusion. Admitting that many persons of stature accept animal magnetism as an effective cure, Thouret uses his considerable erudition to show that such cures are not new and that Mesmer was simply the most recent of a long tradition of thinkers who posited a hidden power of nature that produces healing effects.
He cites Paracelsus, Kircher, Maxwell, and Fludd as examples of men who held views similar to those of Mesmer. He points out that he has been charged by the king to investigate the mineral and medicinal waters of the realm. The work describes successful treatment of various illnesses by animal magnetism. In Two Parts. In this, the least memorable of his works on animal magnetism, Bell presents a confused physics of magnetism, animal magnetism, magnetic fluid, etc. A satirical confession of wrongs by a fictitious member of the commission that condemned animal magnetism.
Attributed to Bergasse.
Observations de M. Here Bergasse announces the split that had opened between Mesmer and himself. It is valuable for the information it provides about contemporary events concerning the fortunes of animal magnetism. The constitution for the Societies of Harmony which were to be set up all over France. Examen du Compte rendu par M. Lyon: n.
Testament politique de M. Leipzig and Paris: n. A pamphlet against Mesmer. The reference to a German original seems to be a literary fiction. De Bruno developed a theory of magnetic fluid that was similar to that of Mesmer whom he cites. He posits one universal magnetic fluid, rather than many, which explains all physical phenomena. London and Paris: E. Oufroy, , 98 pp. Carra was a prolific writer in many fields, including that of physics. Carra gives his own somewhat convoluted physical and philosophical explanations about why this is so.
Aphorismes de M. Ouvrage mis au jour par M. Paris: M.
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The Aphorismes was a very popular book and went through many editions. A wide ranging study of phenomena that are analogous to animal magnetism. The author covers everything from electricity and magnetism in the human body to the curative effects of music. His speculations on the nature of sympathetic cures are particularly interesting.
An attempt to trace the historical antecedents of animal magnetism. Delandine works along the same lines as those pursued in his De la philosophie corpusculaire entry number A work opposing the brand of animal magnetism being practiced in Lyon by a number of practitioners associated with Freemasonry, particularly those under the leadership of the Chevalier de Barberin. Grenoble: n. Bordeaux: n. Correspondance de M. Libourne and Paris: n.
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He sees magnetic somnambulism as a state midway between waking and sleep, a state essentially the same as natural somnambulism, which had been widely recognized as a reality. Fournel points out that the seemingly extraordinary phenomena associated with magnetic somnambulism, such as suggestibility and clairvoyance, have been noted for centuries in connection with natural somnambulism. Speaking of the sudden rise to popularity of magnetic somnambulism, he estimates the number of somnambulists in Paris and the provinces to be in the neighborhood of six thousand.
Fournel makes a strong case for accepting magnetic somnambulism as a genuine phenomenon which deserves further study. Charles Louis Varnier. A satirical treatise written in opposition to animal magnetism. The author uses the popular interest in animal magnetism to advertize the use of medicinal baths and other approaches such as exercise and music to treat illnesses. However, there is very little about animal magnetism in the pamphlet. Its mention in the title was obviously just to arouse the curiosity of the reader. Mesmer counters that it was explicitly stated in their agreement with him that the doctrine of animal magnetism remains his property and that only he can determine how it is to be propagated.
Apparently the earliest Italian book on animal magnetism, and there are no references to it in any of the bibliographical sources for animal magnetism. He begins with something of an apology for writing a book on the subject of animal magnetism, a subject which is of questionable merit. He points out that some French commissions had already dismissed it as a matter of imagination.
But since there are people in Italy, at Piedmont, who are nonetheless practicing it, something needs to be written in response. Mullatera examines the background of magnetic medicine in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe, pointing out the similarity between the teachings of Mesmer and those of Paracelsus, Van Helmont and Fludd. For his contemporary sources he uses principally the reports of the commissions including that of Jussieu and the propositions of Mesmer.
He finds animal magnetism to be of no particular value as a method of cure and places it in the category of useless, fantastic medical treatments. Paris and London: n. The first treatise to attempt to present a comprehensive theory of magnetic somnambulism. It was published in shortly after the essay of Fournel see entry number , which Tardy de Montravel knew and appreciated. Like Fournel, he notes that since its modest beginnings at Buzancy in the previous year, the phenomena of magnetic somnambulism could now be found in Paris, Strasbourg, and throughout all the provinces of France.
Tardy de Montravel had observed many somnambulists, but he bases his newly formulated theory of magnetic somnambulism chiefly on experiments he conducted with a certain Mademoiselle N.
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These qualities included the ability to diagnose her own illness and those of others and the ability to perceive clairvoyantly. He also states that his Mademoiselle N. He held that this sixth sense proceeded from the stomach area and that somnambulists could see and hear with their stomachs. This work is one of the most important and influential early writings on magnetic somnambulism, being cited in nearly all treatises on the subject written before Paris: Imprimerie royale, , 74 pp. Philadelphia: n. Mesmer que par M. Ostende: n.
A member of the very active Lyon branch of Freemasonry and a friend of the celebrated philosopher Louis Claude de Saint-Martin — , the Chevalier de Barberin developed a mystical and spiritualist type of animal magnetism that quickly influenced many practitioners in France. The notion of a physical magnetic fluid was de-emphasized and a more psychological—even magical—view of animal magnetic action took its place. The magnetic passes were made without touching the body and there was much emphasis placed on magnetizing at a distance—even at very great distances.
The importance of the will was emphasized, and the magnetizer was expected to be in tune with the patient in order sympathetically to diagnose and then heal the person. He also truly believed in the pronouncements of his magnetic somnambulists, both for their usefulness in the healing process and for their spiritual messages.
A description of cures and other phenomena associated with the somnambulist Madame de La Breteniere.
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Cures faites par M. Le Cte. The author develops at length his notion of a sixth sense which is brought into operation in the magnetic state. Marburg: Neue Academ. Buchhandlung, , 96 pp. Birnstiel was a well-known professor of medicine at Marburg; Baldinger was a physician. This collection of letters is one of the earliest German works that critically examines the nature of animal magnetism.
Paris: Gastellier, , pp. In support of animal magnetism and one of the few works written by a woman in the early years of its history. Intrigued by a paper on animal magnetism written by Hoffman, Gmelin decided to experiment with this potential source of healing on his own patients.