Langworthy , Robert H.
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Rieder , Andreas , Form oder Effekt? Roberts , Dorothy E. Rothman , David J.
300 Sozialwissenschaften > 300 Sozialwissenschaft, Soziologie
Sarine , L. Schewe , Christoph S. Baden-Baden, Bern : Nomos Schmidt , Manfred G. Schweizer , Rainer J. Jahrhundert Innsbruck : Studien-Verlag 48 — Sedler , Robert A.
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Norton Servon , Lisa J. Shaw , Malcolm N. Siegel , Stephen A. Simester , A. Steiker , Carol S. Steinhardt , Ralph G. Stuntz , William J. Sullivan , E. Sullivan , Kathleen M. Sunstein , Cass R. Tamanaha , Brian Z. Thompson , E. Tribe , Laurence H. April Villiger , Mark E. Waldmann , Bernhard , Das Diskriminierungsverbot von Art.
Weber , Claus ed. Weber , Jack K. Wickersham , George W. Wilson , James Q. Wolf , Burkard J. Wormuth , Francis D. Zedner , Lucia , Security Abingdon : Routledge Ziegler , Andreas R. Chapter 4 explores the question of what distinguishes entrepreneurial practice from other forms of human activity.
Instead of seeking personality traits for entrepreneurs, as does economical psychology, we are here concerned with the kind of economical definitions of the entrepreneur as function worked out in particular by Ludwig von Mises, Israel M. Kirzner, Joseph Schumpeter, Frank H. Knight and Mark Casson.
On their account, entrepreneurs are, first, alert discoverers of speculative profit opportunities; second, innovative, creative destroyers of existing means of production and distribution; third, risk takers; and fourth, coordinators of the production process optimizing resource allocation. These four basic functions converge where they transgress their own borders and struggle to outdo one another under the dictate of comparison.
Chapter 5 addresses the contract, that fundamental social institution for regulating exchange relations and by extension entrepreneurial activity.
It has been observed that the principle of the contract is currently being extended to relations previously not subject to contractual regulation. At the same time, the specifically economical contract is pushing back other contractual traditions. From this perspective, it will be examined how transaction cost theory Alchian, Demsetz and Williamson defines questions of social organization generally as contract problems, evaluating contractual arrangements exclusively in terms of the transaction costs incurred.
The decision to adopt this or that form of contractual agreement is thereby subject to calculation in entrepreneurial terms and to entrepreneurial risks. James M.
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Buchanan posits that people agree on collective rules of play in order to best pursue their own individual benefit, in particular to protect property. Constitutional economics and its theory of the contract are based on an anthropology that grasps human beings fundamentally as the property owners of their own selves. In order to accumulate human capital, they need to divide themselves up into a number of distinct assets and an additional entity to administer these assets by exchange and cooperation with a view to profit.
The entrepreneurial self is not merely a construct derived from theories of economics. It is the telos written into current strategies of mobilizing and optimizing people; strategies or technologies with the effect of imperatives [Page xvii] operating not only within the economic sphere but in society in general. This is shown in Chapter 6. Four key concepts are examined here: creativity, empowerment, quality management and the concept of the project.
Together, they illuminate various facets of entrepreneurial activity, at the same time translating them into social technologies and technologies of the self. Creativity Chapter 6 is an element of innovation, the ability to recognize and grasp chances for profit and the creative destruction that makes space for new things. A chief concern in this chapter is the way the psychology of creativity conceptualizes the capacity for innovation as a human faculty, a social, normative aim as well as a learnable skill, at the same time providing appropriate techniques for developing and increasing this skill.
The entrepreneurial self is supposed to be active and self-reliant. Its confidence in its own power should be reinforced and constantly self-affirmed. This purpose is served by strategies of empowerment. Chapter 7 traces the origins of empowerment back to the emancipation struggles of grassroots social movements, as well as to their disparate fields of application and appropriation. This illuminates the paradox of the empowerment programmes, which work by attributing powerlessness to their prospective recipients and then offering to eradicate said powerlessness.
The heading Quality Chapter 8 points to the way the entrepreneurial self must market its human capital in such a way as to find buyers for the skills and products it has on offer. In other words, quality means customer orientation. This will be demonstrated using the example of total quality management — the continual safeguarding and improvement of standards through elaborate techniques of quality control which systematically extend the model of the market to include personal relations within firms.
There will also be an examination of degree feedback , which integrates employees and supervisors in a panoptical system of mutual observation and evaluation intended to set in motion a dynamic of permanent self-optimization. Chapter 9 subsequently deals with the phenomenon of the project. On the one hand, this means the sequencing of work and by extension of all of life in temporary enterprises demanding a maximum of flexibility from the entrepreneurial self. In the conclusion Chapter 10 , the study doubles back to the sense of uneasiness it started with.
As the contours of the entrepreneurial self [Page xviii] emerged more distinctly, its shadow sides also imposed itself with increasing force: the demand to optimize becomes interminable, selection by competition becomes increasingly relentless, the fear of failure becomes irresistible. This should all be reason enough to get out of the way of the field of force created by the entrepreneurial call.